如何确保论文翻译的专业性? …






展会口译服务简介: 上海迪朗…






孙子兵法 (中英对照)

postmessage_93237″> 孙子兵法
The Art of War
By Sun Tzu
Translated by Lionel Giles

Laying Plans

Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one’s deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.
These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.

These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise:–

(1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?
By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:–let such a one be dismissed!

While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one’s plans.

All warfare is based on deception.

Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple where the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

II. Waging War

Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.

When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men’s weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you lay siege to a town, you will exhaust your strength.

Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain.

Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength exhausted and your treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of your extremity. Then no man, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.

Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.

There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare.

It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on.

The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.

Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished.

On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up; and high prices cause the people’s substance to be drained away.

When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions.

With this loss of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields, protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.

Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions is equivalent to twenty of one’s own, and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one’s own store.

Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.

Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment one’s own strength.

In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.

Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.





迪朗上海翻译公司是一家正规的上海认证翻译机构,迪朗翻译将质量看做是企业的生命,我们通过以下几方面来保证我们自始至终为客户提供着高质量的翻译服务: 项目资源不仅包括译员,还包括从事翻译校对、页面布局、质量控制、编辑和语料库采编和建立的翻译辅助人员,项目经理是整个翻译团队的负责人,负责项目小组的组建、协调和管控。我们的所有翻译都拥有全国翻译专业资格(水平)证书,同时都具备五年以上的翻译经验。全国翻译专业资格(水平)考试(China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters - CATTI)是受国家人力资源和社会保障部委托,由中国外文出版发行事业局(China Foreign Languages Publishing Administration)负责实施与管理的一项国家级职业资格考试,已经纳入国家职业资格证书制度,是一项在全国实行的、统一的、面向全社会的翻译专业资格(水平)认证,是对参试人员口译或笔译方面双语互译能力和水平的评价与认定。翻译专业资格(水平)考试开设多个语种,包括英、日、俄、德、法、西班牙、阿拉伯等语种,各语种分设四个级别。考试等级划分与专业能力如下:
1  资深翻译:

2  一级口译、笔译翻译:

3  二级口译、笔译翻译:

4  三级口译、笔译翻译:

人事部翻译专业资格证书三级 人事部翻译专业资格证书二级


意第绪语 印地语 加泰罗尼亚语 阿尔巴尼亚语 印尼巽他语 捷克语
阿拉伯语 印尼爪哇语 卡纳达语 阿姆哈拉语 印尼语 科西嘉语
阿塞拜疆语 约鲁巴语 克罗地亚语 爱尔兰语 弗里西语 库尔德语
爱沙尼亚语 高棉语 拉丁语 巴斯克语 格鲁吉亚语 拉脱维亚语
白俄罗斯语 古吉拉特语 老挝语 保加利亚语 哈萨克语 立陶宛语
冰岛语 海地克里奧尔语 卢森堡语 波兰语 韩语 罗马尼亚语
波斯尼亚语 豪萨语 马尔加什语 波斯语 荷兰语 马耳他语
布尔语 吉尔吉斯语 马拉地语 丹麦语 加利西亚语 马拉雅拉姆语
马来语 瑞典语 土耳其语 马其顿语 萨庳亚语 威尔士语
毛利语 塞尔维亚语 乌尔都语 蒙古语 塞索托语 乌克兰语
孟加拉语 僧伽罗语 乌兹别克语 缅甸语 世界语 西班牙语
苗语 斯洛伐克语 希伯来语 南非科萨语 斯洛文尼亚语 希腊语
南非祖鲁语 斯瓦希里语 夏威夷语 尼泊尔语 苏格兰盖尔语 信德语
掷威语 宿务语 匈牙利语 旁遮普语 粢马里语 修纳语
葡萄牙语 塔吉克语 亚美尼亚语 普什图语 泰卢固语 伊博语
齐切瓦语 泰米尔语 泰语 意大利语