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孙子兵法 (中英对照)

postmessage_93237″> 孙子兵法
The Art of War
孙武
By Sun Tzu
Translated by Lionel Giles

始计第一
Laying Plans

孙子曰:兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道,不可不察也。
Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected.

故经之以五事,校之以计,而索其情:一曰道,二曰天,三曰地,四曰将,五曰法。
The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one’s deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.
These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.

道者,令民于上同意,可与之死,可与之生,而不危也;
The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.

天者,阴阳、寒暑、时制也;
Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons.

地者,远近、险易、广狭、死生也;
Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death.

将者,智、信、仁、勇、严也;
The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.

法者,曲制、官道、主用也。
By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure.

凡此五者,将莫不闻,知之者胜,不知之者不胜。
These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail.

故校之以计,而索其情,曰:主孰有道?
Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise:–

将孰有能?天地孰得?法令孰行?兵众孰强?士卒孰练?赏罚孰明?吾以此知胜负矣。
(1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment?
By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat.

将听吾计,用之必胜,留之;将不听吾计,用之必败,去之。
The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat:–let such a one be dismissed!

计利以听,乃为之势,以佐其外。
While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules.

势者,因利而制权也。
According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one’s plans.

兵者,诡道也。
All warfare is based on deception.

故能而示之不能,用而示之不用,近而示之远,远而示之近。
Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near.

利而诱之,乱而取之,
Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Feign disorder, and crush him.

实而备之,强而避之,
If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. If he is in superior strength, evade him.

怒而挠之,卑而骄之,
If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.

佚而劳之,亲而离之,
If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. If his forces are united, separate them.

攻其无备,出其不意。
Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected.

此兵家之胜,不可先传也。
These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand.

夫未战而庙算胜者,得算多也;未战而庙算不胜者,得算少也。多算胜少算,而况于无算乎!吾以此观之,胜负见矣。
Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple where the battle is fought. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

作战第二
II. Waging War

孙子曰:凡用兵之法,驰车千驷,革车千乘,带甲十万,千里馈粮。则内外之费,宾客之用,胶
漆之材,车甲之奉,日费千金,然后十万之师举矣。
Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.

其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,
When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men’s weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you lay siege to a town, you will exhaust your strength.

久暴师则国用不足。
Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain.

夫钝兵挫锐,屈力殚货,则诸侯乘其弊而起,虽有智者不能善其后矣。
Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength exhausted and your treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of your extremity. Then no man, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue.

故兵闻拙速,未睹巧之久也。
Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays.

夫兵久而国利者,未之有也。
There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare.

故不尽知用兵之害者,则不能尽知用兵之利也。
It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on.

善用兵者,役不再籍,粮不三载,
The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

取用于国,因粮于敌,故军食可足也。
Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.

国之贫于师者远输,远输则百姓贫;
Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished.

近师者贵卖,贵卖则百姓财竭,
On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up; and high prices cause the people’s substance to be drained away.

财竭则急于丘役。
When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions.

力屈中原、内虚于家,百姓之费,十去其七;公家之费,破军罢马,甲胄矢弓,戟盾矛橹,丘牛大车,十去其六。
With this loss of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields, protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.

故智将务食于敌,食敌一钟,当吾二十钟;□①杆一石,当吾二十石。
Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions is equivalent to twenty of one’s own, and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one’s own store.

故杀敌者,怒也;取敌之利者,货也。
Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.

车战得车十乘以上,赏其先得者而更其旌旗。车杂而乘之,卒善而养之,是谓胜敌而益强。
Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment one’s own strength.

故兵贵胜,不贵久。
In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.

故知兵之将,民之司命。国家安危之主也。
Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril.

【注:】①:“忌”加“艹”头。



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